Information on White Goods, Cables, & Three Phase
“White Goods” is a term widely used, but few are aware of what exactly it means. Electrical Appliances that we use in everyday living, which make life so convenient for us, is known as White Goods in general. Big electronic appliances such as Washing machines, Refrigerators, Microwave ovens, Ironing machines and even air conditioners is considered as White Goods. In short White Goods are those consumer products, which are expensive and not bought often. These products help in housekeeping and household activities.
There is much speculation about where the term “White Goods” originated. Some believe that when these products first began to appear in the market, in the 1930s and 1940s; at that time, they were available only in white color, and, therefore, began to be known as “White goods”. Other sources say that many years ago, Sears and Roebuck sold household appliances, which were in white porcelain. In their catalogue, Sears and Roebuck termed these appliances as “White Goods” and that is how this phrase originated. If you know the exact origin of this term, please do share your information with us. Today these products are available in a vast variety of colors and models, but the term “White Goods” has stuck and is still used by suppliers, however, end consumer do not use it much often.
We tend to take these appliances for granted and often forget how much they contribute to the way we live. Just imagine life some decades ago; there were no Refrigerators, Washing machines or Microwave Ovens. It boggles the mind to think of how life was at that time. People had to, manually wash and dry their clothes. There was no way to preserve food or to cook it in such a short time and with so many different ways. It would be highly impossible for any one of us to live without these products today. White Goods have changed the entire quality of lives we live. With advances in technology, White goods have undergone a massive make-over and are available with futuristic features and benefits. Not only they are designed in an aesthetic way, but also supplied with different styles, in order to provide complete customer satisfaction.
Let us take a look at some of these invaluable appliances, which keep homes running smoothly and seamlessly. The first that comes to mind is the Refrigerator. Without this appliance, the home maker or a working person, both would be terribly debilitated, as there would have been no way to preserve or store food without going rancid. In ancient times, people would preserve food by keeping it in snow or curing meat for it to last.
A modern Refrigerator provides far more services than the above. One can store fruits, flakes, raw meat and cooked food as well, no matter what the weather conditions may be outside. In a harried life, today, the Refrigerator is a boon to the time harassed consumer. Similarly, the Microwave oven is a must have for any home. This product provides a range of cooking solutions, within a short span of time. One can heat food in seconds and save precious time, and a number of coking options offered, which save fuel, cause less pollution and are all available in one small product.
One can bake, barbecue or just heat up a frozen dinner in minutes, with this amazing gadget. Some of the Microwaves today come with a host of unbelievable features, which have made cooking chore easy and less time-consuming. Another appliance that helps conserve energy is the Washing machine. To think of manually washing clothes and then waiting for them to dry, is something we cannot even think. The Washing Machine has cut down on the use of physical energy and saves us a large amount of time, with its benefits. Washing machines are now so advanced, that they have programs for different types of clothes, color and materials. One no longer has to use expensive laundry services or spend hours in completing this work.
Irons are one of the most overlooked household appliances, but one of the most crucial ones. Civilization has come a long way, and today life is all about how we present ourselves in a modern society. Clothes have to be neat and well ironed. The humble ironing machine gives us that smart look. Irons made now have sleek looks and numerous ironing options, making ironing work easier. One of the modern kitchen most used appliances is the Mixer Grinder. From churning out fresh juice for break-fast, or making fresh dough, or mashing vegetables, the humble mixer grinder, is one product without no kitchen can ever be completed.
Without a doubt White Goods today, contribute majorly to our lifestyles, making them convenient and comfortable. These innovative goods have come a long way since their inception, and as time passes, companies innovate further, keeping customers in mind. One can buy any of these in various beautiful designs and colors, besides choosing different features with they come provided. One way or the other, there is no living without these invaluable household devices.
Power Inverters - Empowering the Phase
As we all know that power inverters are the stimulus of the age, orientating and making various devices run.
A little trivia!
Power Inverters is an electrical device that changes direct (DC) current into alternating current (AC). The AC that is converted can be at any required frequency and voltage with the usage of appropriate transformers, control circuits and switching. It’s the basic principle on which it functions, yet it’s the urge of the age, for its myriad vital advantages. It’s a sublime invention of the 20th Century, supposedly, invented in 1984.
There are a vast range of applications, starting from switching on power supplies to large utility high voltage direct current or computers. They are most commonly used to supply AC power from DC sources such as batteries or solar panels.
During the late 19th Century, until the middle of 20th century, power conversion was done using motor generators or rotary converters. Gas filled tubes or vacuum tubes were used as switches in inverter circuits, in the phase of early 20th century. Induction or synchronous AC motor connected to a generator (dynamo) were used by primitive AC-to-DC converters, subsequently, connections used to get reversed at exactly the right moments to produce DC, by the generator’s commutator.
The 1957 introduction of the Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) or Thyristor initiated the transition to solid state inverter circuits, for the early transistors were not available for sufficient voltage and current ratings for most inverter application.
The prime innovation has been to benefit us whilst using multiple appliances or utilities for some purpose or the other. These inverters come in different types and forms viz. Square Wave, Pure Sine Wave, Resonant, Grid Tie, Multilevel, Modified Sine Wave, Synchronous, Stand Alone, Solar Micro, Air Condioner, Cold Cathode, Fluorescent Lamp (CCFL)
They serve various applications; to name them: Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS), HVDC Power Transmission, Induction heating, DC power source utilisation, Variable-frequency drives, Air conditioning, Electric vehicle drives.
Timers : Enhancing, Empowering & Relieving
Satisfaction is the trust reward of work accomplished, eventually, after everything goes in a co-ordinated manner, well managed, quite in time. This happens when you have managed multiple things with consummate ease, employing a perfect timer to keep you posted with a countdown to enable you to multitask in your realm, the kitchen.
All praises and laurels to you from your guests for all the delicacies you prepared for them to relish, and for the ability to have managed everything within a snap, also keeping up with the taste and health in mind, more emphatically, without any mess in the kitchen area; no trace of exhaustion, stress or anxiety. You’re able to cope with all of that and more, with a congenial smile; of course, a good timer is the miraculous and cute accompaniment to help you do all that.
A little trivia!
Timer – It’s a tiny sophisticated clock, which takes charge of the entire series of events and activities. You set and forget it; it reminds you, counting down from a specified time interval, typically, like an hourglass. The most common types of timers are electromechanical, electronic (quartz), mechanical, or all modern computers, digital timers or even software. Mechanical Timer - This particular timer is known for regulating its speed. It is somewhat synonymous to mechanical alarm clocks for its accurate mechanisms. It does not need power to run, and known for its longevity; it’s been of known for its usage in controlling explosives. Electromechanical Timer - Thermal mechanism is the principal usage by the electromechanical timer that is bimetallic. Although it has relatively lesser durability, it’s quite an effective timer.
For a kitchen, with its uncompromising and spectacular soothing sound, which is also called as white noise, it operates with two-speed mechanism for superior sound quality. The digital timer has an LCD display, with minutes & seconds to keep you informed every now and then. These types of timers are just good friends of yours in the kitchen, for they are extremely helpful in reminding you when it’s about time to punch down the bread dough for its second rise or to take the roast out, which, otherwise, escapes out of your mind while you may be occupied with so many other things in the kitchen.
Such many types of timers are exceedingly versatile, loaded with features to help you manage your chores with utmost comfort and convenience, without any haste. Everything in the kitchen tends to be hunky-dory then.
Batteries | Power Batteries
We know how important batteries are for life. They resuscitate, rejuvenate and re-energise components, electrochemically. Since evolution of life and standard of living of human beings, we’ve seen their crucial involvement and contribution to the scientific advancements.
Beyond our imaginations and perceptions, they have exceeded insurmountably, illuminating and recharging our day to day life. Commercially, as an industry, it has been indescribably prolific and humongous.
A little trivia!
Benjamin Franklin, perhaps, augured it to be what it is today for the entire world, hence used the term ‘battery’. He gave the definition to a set of connected capacitors, in 1749. Interestingly, panels of glass coated with metal on each surface were the said capacitors that were charged with static generator and discharged by touching metal to their electrode. Apparently, connecting them to the ‘battery’ resultantly gave a much powerful discharge.
The magic of physical phenomenon of two or more electrochemical cells converting stored chemical energy into electrical energy were read and researched extensively by many of the scientists in the 18th and beginning of 19th Century, thus battery got its identity; although battery (or scientifically known as ‘Voltaic Pile’) was technically invented by Alessandra Volta in 1800, and further improved by Daneill Cell in 1836.
His invention was significantly useful in telegraph for a very long time, until it got replaced by Leclanché Cell in the late 1860s. Though, in 1842, the German scientist Johanne Christian Poggendorff gave an effective solution to the imminent problems of copper build-up which would block the pores in the earthenware barrier and reduced the battery's life, by separating the electrolyte and the depolariser using a porous earthenware pot, which later came to be known as Poggendorff Cell. In addition to it, Fuller Cell came into existence as a development to Poggendorff Cell.
Later, Grove Cell emerged, which consisted of a zinc anode that was dipped in sulphuric acid, a platinum cathode dipped in nitric acid, which were separated by porous earthenware. In 1859, we got our first rechargeable battery which was also known ‘Lead Acid Cell’ invented by Gaston Plante, followed by the Gravity Cell, invented by Callaud in 1860, which was believed to be a variant of the Daniell Cell.
A battery was invented in 1866, by Georges Leclanché, wherein, wrapped in a porous material, a zinc anode and a manganese dioxide cathode was dipped in a jar of ammonium chloride solution. Shortly, in 1887, we got the first dry cell – The Zinc Carbon Cell, invented by Carl Gassner.
In 1899, The Swedish scientist Waldemar Jungner invented the Nickel- Cadmium battery, which is also the first alkaline battery, followed by Nickel Iron Battery in 1903, patented and sold by Thomas Edison.
Lewis Urry, an engineer with the National Carbon Company Parma Research Laboratory, found the way to extend the life of the zinc-carbon battery, further developing the Common Alkaline Battery, in 1955, he experimented it using manganese dioxide cathode and a powdered zinc anode with an alkaline electrolyte. This ingenious idea of using powdered zinc provided the advantage of a greater surface area, which was a revolution and a hot cake in the market then, registering an overwhelming success. Then, we had the first NiMH –The Nickel Metal-Hydride battery.
Now, it was the trend of the lithium and lithium-ion batteries that were extensively used during the phase of 1970 to 1990. Experimented under G N Lewis, 1912, lithium batteries were later sold in 1970. Thus, it’s been a long and transcending journey for ‘Battery’, to have surpassed myriad milestones over the centuries, undoubtedly, being a part of our daily chores and errands, endowing utmost puissance to our life and existence.
The History of Cables
Cables are an essential part of our daily life- whether or not they're actually something that you've thought about before! Without cables you wouldn't have a television or a phone, but not only that you wouldn't have a house, and your country probably wouldn't have an economy either. Cables are such a normal part of our lives that we tend to dismiss them, until it comes to buying them, that is. So what should you know about cables?
A Little Trivia
Since time immemorial we have been making cables. From hemp, wool or plant fibres, we've been twisting and twining fibres together to make ropes. The very first kinds of cable were exactly that, ropes. Used for hunting or fishing, the first cables gave us sustenance. Then they became part of our clothes and our building methods.Later in history, we began to use cables for more entrepreneurial purposes. Vast, thick cables were essential to the shipping industry, and then to mining, and by the time we reach the industrial revolution, cables are made from metals. In fact, there probably wouldn't have been an industrial revolution without cables to build with or form parts of machinery. That means that every industrial country, including the UK, owes a lot of its power to something as unassuming as a cable.
These days of course, we tend to think of cables as electrical cables. These wires started out bringing telephones and electrical lights into our homes, and then grew to include television as well. Nowadays we have cable internet, cables running under oceans, and even optical fibre cables that can move data at super-fast speeds. Nearly everything that we do, from work to entertainment to travel, involves cables in some way, shape or form.
How We Use Cables
There are so many different kinds of cable that it's difficult to list them all. From fibre optic cables that carry data, to power cables for your home electronics, water resistant submersible cables, fire retardant cables useful in transportation and mining, or even paired cables, which are basically two cables made into one. The use of a cable depends on its material, of course. In early days plant fibres were used giving greater strength to a cable, and as time went by we began to add more complex twisting or binding to create cables that were even stronger. With the advent of metal cables we not only had cables that were extremely strong, but that could also conduct electricity. Copper cables can transport data, too but are now being replaced by optical fibre cables or this task.
We also have various ways of connecting cables together. These vary from basic knotting techniques or use of velcro loops to extremely complex methods, including ratchet systems that help maintain tension in a cable, or soldering techniques that help preserve the strength of a cable when two cables need to be joined together.
Cable Essential to us All
Even though you probably rarely consider the impact that cables have on your life, without them your life would be a lot different. Every time you switch on your TV, every time you get in a lift, every time you drive your car, use your mobile phone, even every time you get dressed or grab a cup of coffee, cables play a part in your experience.
So maybe it's time that you gave cables a little more thought. Without them, not only your life would be different, but the whole world would be different. A simple braid of plant fibres has transformed into a plethora of different kinds of cable, all of them having a huge impact on the way we live today.
Though handy and necessary, yet electricity ought to come with safety. It’s a universally tacit fact. In today’s world, in the fast moving age, everything has got automated; life has us on tenterhooks, heaped with anxiety, as a consequence, we tend to be oblivious about the basic things of importance.
We do take precautions while having electricity circuits strewn at home, offices and several other places. Earthing is one of those extremely important aspects while getting electricity connections done. A proper earthing system not only saves us from electric shocks, but also, it is highly efficacious from the safety and electromagnetic compatibility perspective.
The purpose of earthing of an Earthing Cable
In any appliance or gadget, if there’s an insulation failure, the earthing cable or wire will allow a path for the current to flow on to the ground. If the earthing cable is absent or not connected, then the current would flow through the body of the operator, jolting the person/operator with electrical shock, which can be fatal.
A little trivia!
During 1820, electromagnetic telegraph systems were used. There were two or more wires required to run the electromagnetic system. These wires used to carry the current and return the signals simultaneously. However, later a German scientist known as Carl August came up with an idea that the earth or ground can be used to complete the circuit, without the use of return wire. Later on, it came into notice, there were some flaws in the technique of Mr. Carl. During dry weather conditions, high resistance get used to developed in the ground connection, and the ground required to be watered, in order to make telegraph or phone to work functionally well.
After telephony supplanting telegraphy, two-wire system was introduced, because it was observed that there were intolerable interference and interruptions from the currents induction from the electrical railways, telegraph and other telephone services and or even natural lightning.
Know what’s functional earth and protective earth During the normal operation of a device, the possibility of a functional earth carrying current cannot be ruled out, unlike a protective earth.
Electromagnetic-compatibility filters, surge suppression, various measurement instruments and different types of antennae require functional earth connections. Although the protective earth needs proper care sometimes, yet it can be used as a functional earth.
Innovations making life easier & safer With the changing trends, earthing cables have also got innovative changes. Albeit, their prime function is to connect the metal frame of the electrical gadgets and appliances to the ground, they cannot be secondary to anything when it is about electrical supply systems. The new age, high quality Earthing Cables assure safety, electrical and aesthetical compatibility.
Three Phase - Leveraging the best for a fruitful future
The future has a lot in store, and immense projections of growth depend on massive scale productions and manufacturing. May it be a large motor, industrial pumps or machineries, the need of the phase is, ‘less power consumption and efficient working’; so, the solution is simple, a three phase electrical system. It’s an enormous advantage, for it consumes lesser electricity, compared to the single phase, and seemly, efficient.
A little trivia!
It was Nikola Tesla who introduced the system of three phase current, and had it patented in 1887-88. It was a revolutionary step in the electric power spectrum, for it consumes lesser electricity, and is far economical, using less conductor material for transmission of electric power than the equivalent of single or two-phase at the same voltage. As we all know, three-phase is to transmit electric power with the help of three wires to distribute 3 independent alternate current.
The phenomenon of relaying current in each wire from the other by one-third of the entire cycle, with each current signifying one phase, is to have a much more stable flow of current than in the single-phase. The purpose is just that all three currents together distribute equitable and balanced load, which is not possible with just a single-phase. Interestingly, at times, four wires are used in three-phase system, which serves as a neutral wire that empowers the system to utilise higher voltage. The process is simple - the power originates from a power station, wherein conversion of mechanical power into alternating electrical currents happens.
At this juncture, the transformation of power into the standard usable voltage takes place, later supplied to homes, offices and business houses, following innumerable conversions in the network of delivery and transmission. Further, it also gains the identity as ‘star connection’ when the output of the transformer is connected to the power system using three live wires, fastened to a single ground return. Conductors (or the wires) in a three-phase system are indicated through colour codes. They vary as per the locations.
Every country has its own code to identify the conductors. In America, the colours are usually black, red, and blue to identify the three-phase, and the white signifies neutral. The colours of the wires are absolutely different in Europe; they are brown, black, and grey for the phases, and blue for the neutral wire. Application of the three-phase Heavy electric motors are run by three-phase power. The induction motor of the three-phase replicates varied qualities like high level of efficiency, a high end torque, and simple design. This type of motor is often used by compressors, industrial fans, pumps, blowers and several other types of equipments. Also, for converting alternating current to direct current, electric boilers, air conditioning equipment, apparently, huge rectifier systems are used.